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Location

The Republic of Yemen lies in the South of Arabia (The Arabian Peninsula), south-west of Asia, between latitudes 12 and 20 degrees to the north of the equator, and between longitudes 41and 54 degrees to the south of Greenwich, bordered on the north by Saudi Arabia, on the south by the Arab Sea and the Gulf of Aden, on the east by the Sultanate of Oman and on the west by the Red Sea.

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Area

The area of the Republic of Yemen exceeds 555,000 km. excluding the Empty Quarter.

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Population

The population of the Republic of Yemen is 17,000,000 

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Language

Arabic is the official language of the country, with English being the most widely used second language.

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Religion

Islam is the official religion and is the religion of the majority of the population except for a Jewish minority.

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Geographical Divisions

In view of its topographical structure, the Republic of Yemen is divided into five regions:

1.      Mountain

2.      Highland

3.      Coastal

4.      Empty Quarter

5.      The Yemen Islands  

1. Mountain region with heights ranging between 1000-3760m. high

The western mountain range represents a large area of the country. It is the range called Al-Surat mountains stretching longitudinally from the north to the south and transversally from the west to the east which resembles the letter "L". These heights go down in different directions. They descend sharply westwards to the Red Sea, southwards to the Gulf of Aden, and eastwards and northwards to the interior desert areas. In the mountain heights, stretching from the north to the south, there are a number of basins (beds), of considerable agricultural importance with large populations, such as Sana'a basin, Yarim basin, Jahran flatland, Sa'da flatland, Alboun flatland, Aqwat Hadhramout bed and Si'aith bed in Mahara. The most prominent mountains in these heights are the mountains of Attaq, Bayhan, Mukairas, Al-Dhalie', Yafie', Sabra, Hudhour Alsheikh, Miswar and Prophet Shu'aib which at  3766m above sea level is the highest mountain in Arabia

2. The Highland region

This area lies to the east and north of the mountainous heights going in parallel to the heights towards the Empty Quarter. The maximum height of this area is 1000m gradually descending. Such area is represented by the highlands in Sana'a, Al Jouf, Shabwa, Hadhramout and Mahara. The out- skirts of this area in the north overlap with the Empty Quarter.

 

3. The Coastal Area

This area includes the coastal plains overlooking the Red Sea, Gulf of Aden and Arabian Sea. They are connected to each other forming a coastal strip that extends from the Oman border south- westward to Bab Al-Mandab. This strip then changes its direction northward to the borders of Saudi Arabia, thus making it more than 2400km. long. The width of the plains range from 30 to 60 km.  

4. The Empty Quarter (Alrub AlKhali)

This is a Yemeni desert area located to the north of Hadhramout highlands, and to the south of the western heights. This area consists of desert plains covered with gravel, sand and sandy dunes in Volving in some parts desert plants and vast oases, that were formed due to the collection of the seasonal water. It is inhabited by the wandering nomads because of its pastoral land.

 

5. The Yemeni Islands

This part of the country consists of islands scattered along the coasts of Yemen. There are 120 islands, most of which are located in the Red Sea. The biggest islands are Kamaran, Greater Hunaish, Minor Hunaish, the rest of Archipelago, Zaqar, Zubair, AL-Tayr and the strategic island of Meon at the Bab Al-Mandeb. In addition there are islands located in the Gulf of Aden and thc Arabian Sea, the largest of which is Soqatra.

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Climate

Since Yemen is endowed with a varied topography, the climate, in general, also varies, although there are no major seasonal differences. We can say there are two long seasons: summer and winter During summer, the temperature and humidity are high in the coastal areas, while the climate is moderate during winter. From time to time the rainfall, due to the monsoon, moderates the temperature over the coastal areas in summer. In the mountain areas, the weather is moderate in summer and cold in winter during the night and in the early morning, but the bright sun rays raise the temperature during the day making the weather very moderate in these parts of the country.

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